230BC : Galatian Celts defeated in battle by Greek forces in Western Turkey.
225BC : Roman army routs invading Celtic Gauls at Telamon in central Italy.
200BC : The Celts establish permanent fortified settlements (oppida, or towns).
191BC : Cisalpine Gaul is taken by the Romans.
121BC : Rome takes Provence.
100BC : Belgae tribes migrate to Britain to escape Roman domination.
70BC : Druids arrive in Britain and gain control of the ruling classes.
58BC : Julius Caesar is made governor of Provence.
58-51BC : Caesar's Gallic Wars
58BC : Helvettii in Switzerland are attacked by Germanic tribes led by Ariovistus and move to Gaul.
Caesar follows them and defeats them at Toulon-sur-Arroux. Dumnorix of the Aedui tries to lead resistance against the Romans
57BC : Caesar then turned his attention to the tribes of the Belgae and lays seige to their territory.
By autumn, Caesar claims that all the Gallic tribes are subjects of Rome.
56BC : The Veneti of Brittany seize two Roman envoys, and make a stand. After a long sea battle, Caesar
executed the leaders and sold the men of the tribe into slavery.
55BC : Julius Caesar tries to land in Britain and is pinned down on a beachhead for two months. His
cavalry was seasick and was sent back to Gaul. With the aproaching Autumn gales he withdraws from Britain.
54BC : Caesar prepares another expedition to Britain and attempts to take Dumnorix as a hostage.
Dumnorix refuses and the Romans kill him. As he dies he cries "I am a freeman in a free state". Inspired by his actions, Ambiorix
of the Eburones leads an attack against the Roman garrison and massacres them. Ambiorix recruits the Belgic tribes, the Nervii
and Aduatuci, and lay seige to the garrison at Namur. The attack is so successful that Caesar himself had to lead the relieving
army to drive them off.
53BC : The tribes of Gaul unite under the leadership of Indutiomarus of the Treveri. The Celtic army
consisted of the Treveri, Senones, Carnutes, Nervii, Aduatuci and Eburones. Indutiomarus attacks Caesar's headquarters at
Mouzon and lays seige. After a great fight, the Romans kill Indutiomarus. There then followed a number of uprisings among
the tribes and Caesar has to work his way through the tribes putting down revolts. Acco of the Senones and the Carnutes was
flogged and then put to death. Ambiorix was trailed by a Roman troop until he disappeared into the Ardennes forest, and was
never heard from again.
A war leader called Vercingetorix
emerges to take control of the Celtic army. He maintains a running battle from three successive hill forts. The last one
was called Aelisia and Ceasar laid siege for three months with no effect and had to defend himself from from constant attack
by the Celtic warriors. Vercingetorix finely surrenders.
45BC : Caesar ordered that Vercingetorix was to be taken to Rome. He was paraded through the streets
then executed as a dangerous enemy of Rome.
O : Birth of Christ. (According to the church of Rome under Constantine)
AD38 : Caligula parades Celtic captives through Rome.
AD39 : The Catevaulauni under the Kingship of Cunobelinus and his sons Caratacus and Togidubnus, expand
into the Atrebate (Hampshire) and the Trinovante (Suffolk).
AD41 : Petition put in to Rome for assistance, turned down because of the civil wars in Rome.
AD43 : Verica
of the Atrebates petitions Claudius
to come to Britain to help against the Catevaulauni.
AD 43 :
Claudian invasion with four legions under Aulus Plautius. Defeat of Caratacus and capture of
Camulodunum. Expansion into the midlands (XX Valeria Victrix and XIV Gemina) and in the east (IX Hispana). Frontier established
west of Fosse Way. Caractacus
escapes into the Welsh borders and fights the Romans using guerilla tactics. Once it is safe to do so, Claudius comes to
Britain in person to claim it for Rome. He rides an elephant into the new town of Londinium, stays for two weeks, then goes
AD47 : New governor, Ostorius Scapula, governor, draws a frontier from the Trent to the Severn. Campaigns
in the west (Legio II Augusta under Vespasian).
AD49 : Colonia of Camulodonum (Colchester) founded. And Roman expansion starts into Wales.
AD49-50 : Foundation of Colonia Victricensis at Camulodunum. Mendip lead mines already in Roman hands.
Legionary fortresses at Glevum and Lindum. Invasion of South Wales.
Caratacus, finally defeated in North Wales, flees to Cartamandua
, queen of the Brigantes, and is surrendered to the Romans.
AD52 : New Governor, D. Gallus.
c. AD55 : Didius Gallus, governor, intervenes on the side of Cartimandua in Brigantian civil war.
AD57 : New Governor, Q. Veranius.
AD58 : New Governor, S. Paulinus, attack on N. Wales
AD59-60 : Suetonius
clears Britain totally of the Druids, with a final stand on
AD60 : Suetonius Paulinus, governor, attacks Ynys Môn (Anglesey).
AD60 : Pratagustus
of the Iceni
dies, and the Romans take his lands away from Boudicca.
AD60-61 : Boudicca
is elected war leader and leads a revolt agianst the Romans. Icenian revolt under Boudicca
suppressed after sack of Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium. Boudicca takes her own life, by drinking from a poisoned
AD63 : New Governor, T. Maximus.
AD65 : Preparations for campaigns in Wales.
AD66 : One legion (XIV Gemina) withdrawn from Britain.
AD68 : Army in Britain refuses to join the governor, Trebellius Maximus, in revolt against Galba.
AD69 : Romans fail to prevent the defection of the Brigantes.
AD69 : Civil Wars, New Governor, V. Bolanus.
New Governor, P. Cerialis.the Romans took control of the North when they defeated the Brigantes,
a great Northern Celtic tribe at The Battle of Scotch Corner
. Brigantes were Cymraeg-speaking ancient Britons who occupied most of Yorkshire and South Durham and were the largest single
tribe in Roman Britain. One of their main forts was just to the north of Scotch Corner at a place called Stanwick St John.
When the Romans first arrived in northern Britain, the fort of Stanwick was the most important stronghold of the Brigantes.
It was from here that the tribe fought the Romans at the Battle of Scotch Corner.
Petilius Cerealis, governor, with a new legion (II Adiutrix) conquers the Brigantes. Romans
eventually force the Brigantes to abandon the fort at Stanwick
in 73 AD. Legionary fortress at Eburacum.
AD74-78 : Sextus Julius Frontinus, governor, subdues Wales and plants garrisons there. Legionary fortresses
at Isca and Deva.
AD78 : Julius Agricola, governor, completes the conquest of North Wales and Ynys Môn (Anglesey).
AD79 : Consolidation of Brigantian conquest.
AD80 : Advance to the Central Lowlands.
AD81 : Agricola advances to the Forth/Clyde line.
AD82 : Conquest of south-west Scotland.
AD83-84 : Agricola advances north and defeats the Caledonians at the battle of Mons Graupius. Roman
fleet circumnavigates Britain. Legionary fortress at Inchtuthil.
AD84 : After the Battle of Mons Graupius, occupation of N.Scotland.
AD84-85 : Agricola recalled by Domitian.
AD86 : One legion (II Adiutrix) withdrawn from Britain.
c. AD90 : Legionary fortress at Inchtuthil evacuated.
AD90-6 : Foundation of Lindum Colonia
AD96-8 : Foundation of Colonia Nervia
Glevensis at Gloucester.
AD99-100 : Legionary fortess at Isca
and many auxiliary forts rebuilt in stone.
Scottish forts evacuated.
c.AD103 : Legionary fortress at Deva
rebuilt in stone.
AD107-108 : Legionary fortress at Eburacum
rebuilt in stone.
c.AD117 : Revolt in north Britain.
AD122 : Hadrian visits Britain.
Legio IX Hispana replaced by VI Victrix.
Construction of Hadrian's Wall from Tyne to Solway begun by
Aulus Platorius Nepos.
AD139-142 : Q Lollius Urbicus, governor
under Emperor Antoninus Pius, advances into Scotland and builds the Antonine Wall across the Clyde-Forth isthmus.
AD155 : Rebellion in north Britain suppressed
by C. Julius Verus.
Antonine Wall temporarily evacuated and Hadrian's Wall recommissioned.
AD161-165 : Forts rebuilt by Calpurnius
Antonine Wall finally evacuated.
AD180-184 : Further revolt in north Britain
subdued by Ulpius Marcellus.
AD193 : On the assassination of Emperor
Commodus, Pertinax, lately governor of Britain, is chosen emperor by the Praetorian Guard but is quickly killed. Empire auctioned
to Didius Jukianus who is defeated by Severus.
AD196-197 : Clodius Albinus, governor
of Britain, takes troops from Britain to fight for the throne but is defeated by Severus.
Raids on Britain by the Maetae, a new confederacy of tribes
living north of Hadrian's Wall.
AD197 : Virius Lupus restores the situation
and rebuilds many forts.
AD205-208 : Rebuilding of Hadrian's Wall
by Alfenus Senecio.
Britain divided into two provinces.
AD208 : Severus, Geta and Caracalla arrive
in Scotland and prepare for northern campaigning.
AD209 : Severus and Caracalla campaign
in Scotland and receive the surrender of the Caledonians.
AD210 : Revolt of the Maetae and second
AD211 : Emperor Severus dies at York.
Withdrawal to Hadrian's Wall and reorganisation of southern
Scotland as a protectorate.
AD212 : Caracalla extends Roman citizenship
to all freeborn provincials.
AD259-274 : Britain a part of the Gallic
Empire of Postumus and his successors who had rebelled against the Emperor Gallienus.
AD275-287 : Saxon pirates in the Channel.
AD287 : Carausius, commander of the British
fleet, usurps the title of Emperor in Britain and northern Gaul and is temporarily recognised by Diocletian and Maximian.
AD293 : Constantius as Caesar reconquers
Carausius' continental possessions.
AD294 : Carausius murdered by Allectus
who succeeds him.
AD296 : Britain restored to the legitimate
emperors by Constantius who crosses the Channel and defeats and kills Allectus.
Barbarian inroads in the north.
Some forts on Hadrian's Wall and legionary fortressea at Eburacum
and Deva rebuilt.
Emperor Diocletian's reorganisation divides Britain into
four provinces, separates the military from the civil administration and institutes new military posts.
AD306 : Constantius, now emperor, with
his son Constantine, campaigns in Scotland.
Death of Constantius and proclamation of Constantine as new
emperor at York.
AD313 : Edict of Milan grants toleration
to the Christian church.
AD314 : Three British bishops attend
the Council of Arles.
AD330 : Roman Empire divided into two.
Constantinople made capital of the eastern half which becomes the senior partner. Western Emperor subordinate to the Eastern
AD343 : Emperor Constans visits Britain
and pacifies the Scottish tribes.
AD360 : Julian, Caesar (emperor in the
West) sends Lupicinus to repel raids of Scots (from northern ireland) and Picts from Scotland.
AD364 : Picts, Scots, Attacotti and Saxons
AD367 : Great invasion of Picts, Scots
and Attacotti (either Irish or from the western isles) aided by Saxon pirates and a simultaneous attack on Gaul by the Franks
from east of the Rhine.
Treachery in Hadrian's Wall garrison. Nectaridus, Count of the
Saxon Shore killed and Fullofaudes, Duke of Britain, routed. (Holders of the new military posts mentioned in 296).
AD369 : Count Theodosius, sent by Emperor
Valentinian I, clears Britain of invaders and restores Hadrian's Wall.
Signal stations built on Yorkshire coast.
Fifth British province (Valentia) established.
AD383 : Magnus Maximus (Duke of Britain)
revolts and conquers Gaul and Spain from Emperor Gratian with troops taken from Britain.
AD388 : Maximus defeated at Aquileia
(northern Italy) by Theodosius.
AD395 : General Silicho improves the
defence of Britain.
AD407 : Constantine III, a usurper, strips
Britain of troops for his conquest of Gaul and Spain.
AD410 : Emperor in the West Honorius
tells the civitates in Britain to arrange for their own defence.
AD417 : Possible dispatch of mobile Roman
force to south-eastern Britain.
AD429 : First visit of Bishop St Germanus.
c.AD445 : Second visit of Germanus.
c.AD446 : Last appeal of the Romano-Britons
to leader in the western Empire, Aetius. No reply.
By 446 numbers of English migrants were settling
in eastern England and as a dominant minority gradually achieved a hegemony. Roman Britain ended in fact with a whimper, not
a bang. From this point on Celtic Britain ends, or to be more precise Romano-British rule is no more. The Celtic peoples had
spent 400 years mixing and marrying with the Romans and all the other peoples that came in smaller numbers from the Empire.
For the last 100 years the Saxons had settled the south of England with the Roman forces unable to stop them. In fact the
Romans paid the Saxons to keep the peace. When the Empire collapsed and the troops that remained were recalled, they had to
run the gauntlet of the Saxon warriors all the way down to the ships on the coast. Many of them were robbed of their possessions
on the way through, and some did not make it at all! What was left of the Romano-British in the south of Britain rallied around
a military leader for a few years and kept the Saxons at bay. This shadowy figure is what all the Arthurian stories are based
on, the rest is legend.